功夫熊猫2-夹着几根中式面条的汉堡包

在LA West Hollywood附近的The Grove影院看的功夫熊猫2的首映,不到90分钟的runtime和13刀的2D票价相比,多少有些让人失望。

整部影片最多只能算是一个夹着几根中式面条的汉堡包:表面上打着演绎中国文化的商标,实则是靠贩卖Panda, Noodle, Bamboo, Kungfu等带有异国风情的中国奇观,用美国大众文化和美式幽默讨好各国观众 -Americanization is globalization。

影片里无处不显露出对于美国个人主义和草根英雄主义精神的赞美和延续(一个胖英雄拯救世界),以及对中国传统文化与(道家)哲学的嘲弄和调侃。

本片的笑点除了跨文化的杂耍式奇观slapstick,也涵盖了大量难以翻译的英语桥段。比如Po在船上练习inner peace时,每次ce还没说完,就被雨水击中,于是inner peace(内心宁静)被说成了inner pee(在里面撒尿)。再比如熊猫和猴子对于Tigeree(虎妞,一个英文自造词)hardcore品质的调侃和互文。

熊猫,这一说着满口college英语的中国国宝的原型实则是美国吃着junk food快餐,挺着大肚子的中产阶级和穷苦民众。同时熊猫的black and white的肤色,构建了一个和谐融洽的种族关系,同时讨好了各个族裔的观众,供大家identify。而道家阴阳相生相继的八卦图,在美国人眼里,不过是奥利奥一般的白加黑,平淡无奇。于是道家哲学和肤浅笨拙,没有受过高等教育,满口叫嚷着awesomeness的熊猫联系在了一起,供观众调侃和奚落。

而黄皮肤的虎妞,则是好莱坞电影里滥用的中国Dragon lady和Chinese Mama的原型的合体。她刻苦努力练习功夫20年,但却墨守成规,行事呆板僵硬,最后还是得被灵活幽默,不按套路出牌的“美国式英雄”熊猫大侠救赎。电影里对她的hardcore-ness的反复调侃,又映射着西方文明对中国这个被异域化女性化的“母老虎”的经济崛起的嘲弄和怀疑。

国内某些脑残的网站,或许被电影里interracial dating(或者说inter-species更为恰当)的桥段启发,分析出《功夫熊猫2》是送给中国的一封“情书”,只可惜这些脑残对这纸被天价购买的情书里用荧光笔highlight的藏头诗却熟视无睹。

熊猫的继父大雁,则是对中国商人的小农意识的恶搞:大雁偶尔矫情一下,出来做个秀,实则财迷心窍,靠儿子的招牌做生意。

此外,电影里对狼狗形象的刻画,无不蕴含着对中国臭名昭著的“城管执法”的含沙射影。这些长着尖牙的走狗,强抢人民的锅碗瓢盆拿去炼钢,制造武器。而小兔子,小羊等“良民”则象征着中国手无缚鸡之力的民众。而片尾肥头肥脑的猪妈妈带着猪儿子包场,要求见“Dragon Warrior”的那一幕,没法不让人感觉到对中国富二代组成的特权阶级,以及中国在新的世界政治经济秩序中扮演的Nouveau riche角色的辛辣讽刺。

大反派孔雀的形象则是最隐晦的,这里不做解释。当然,还有两位被囚禁的武学大师,也让人想入翩翩。

熊猫的师父是美洲浣熊,中国根本没有的动物,这里寓意也很明显;另外,熊猫的眼睛也是高加索人特有的绿色。好莱坞砸钱拍这部片子,这些choice绝对不是random的。

看完此片,我完全可以理解中国大陆的艺术家们对该片的抵制态度。当然,该片尽管production quality明显低于前作(耗时3年),但借着首部的气势,和一如既往的好莱坞大片的商业技巧,必定会赚饱票房。而片子里暗含的innuendo做的如此subtle,以至于广电的审查官员在大笑之余也没了脾气。殊不知,太平洋东岸的西好莱坞,制片厂的高层们,则在一边偷笑,一边数着钞票。

P.S.

发笑叫好的朋友们不妨回家再仔细看看这部片子,好好反思一下,其实都没看懂文本背后的潜台词和意识形态,按赵半狄和孔和尚的话说就是“脑残”,享受的不过是被好莱坞文化强奸后的快感罢了……

The Absent Genre – Experimental Cinema in mainland China

Introduction

The major history of Chinese experimental cinema is that there is hardly any history until the 1990’s. While the more than 100 years history of Chinese cinema has witnessed a handful of excellent fiction narrative films, documentaries as well as animations, experimental cinema has been an absent genre in Chinese film history for a long time, an exotic genre only exclusive to its Euro-American counterparts. After the turn of the century, experimental cinema starts to grow in mainland China, thanks to the founding of several experimental film and video programs. However, the emergence of Chinese experimental cinema was not so much a counter-cinema or radical movement against the mainstream political or commercial cinema, instead it’s more of an artistic and aesthetic endeavor, an exploration and experimentation of the cinematic language, and a redemption of the absent genre often supported by academia or the state, even though many Chinese experimental films are politically or socially concerned.

In this paper, I am not trying to argue that there is no experimentation in the early Chinese cinema or there is not a single Chinese film made before the 1990’s that can be considered as experimental. As a matter of fact, a surrealism tendency was found in the 1979 film Troubled Laughter; Mu Fei’s pre-1949 narrative films demonstrated many individual experimentations; Peili Zhang, the father of video art in China, made 30X30 in 1988, which is generally acknowledged as the first experimental video in China. In addition, major Chinese film historians credited early Chinese comedies and marital art films for their technological and formalistic explorations as compensation to the lack of an experimental tradition in early Chinese cinema. Besides, due to the lack of archive and exhibition, and the turmoil during the war and revolution eras, there might be experimental films that are lost and therefore unknown to Chinese audiences.

However, experimental cinema only starts to appear as a collective concept around the 1990’s, and it is only until the turn of the century that experimental filmmaking has been set on the agenda of Chinese cultural production. In 2003, 2005 and 2006, China Academy of Art, Beijing Film Academy and Central Academy of Fine Arts all launched experimental cinema programs, situated in different departments, respectively. In the meantime, Experimental cinema has been added to the checkbox list of many Chinese film festivals and competitions. In 2009, a state supported experimental cinema exhibition was held at the Peking University, along with a couple of similar events in academic institutions, fan clubs, and the semi-state-controlled artist residency – “798 art district”.

The emergence of an experimental cinema in mainland China, both within and without the support of the state, brings me doubt and interest. Thus in this paper, I will try to draw a framework of the history of experimental cinema in mainland China. I will start using the term “China” to refer to “mainland China” for short. I also choose to use the term “experimental cinema” (试验电影) in its Chinese context, to differentiate it from “underground,” “avant-garde,” “amateur,” “independent,” “personal” or “alternative cinema,” even though the English term “experimental” is usually used interchangeably with the others.

I will first try to distinguish the terms and definitions of experimental cinema in both Chinese and English, and attempt to draw an outline of the history of Chinese experimental cinema, and introduce a few selected artists and their works.

The research will be based on a literary review from related materials as well as accessible information on the production and exhibition of experimental cinema in China, referring to materials in both languages, from books, journals, personal interviews, media coverage, film reviews and other information available on the internet.

Experimental but not Underground: Lost and Gain in Translation

Unlike the exotic cinematic apparatus that were imported to China in the early 1900s, the terms related to experimental cinema were never imported. Instead the English terms “experimental,” “avant-garde,” “underground,” “independent,” “amateur,” “alternative,” “personal” and “minor” were patched literally with their Chinese translations – 实验,先锋,地下,独立,业余,另类,个人,小众, ignoring the linguistic, cultural and socio-political contexts inhabited within the terms. During this re-signification process that re-links the signifier and the signified, lost and gain was inevitable.

How is “experimental cinema” defined, and what’s the inherent meaning of the term “experimental” in English? Up until now, it’s still a question beyond a consensus of opinions in the English academia. Sitney avoids the term “experimental” since “it implies a tentative and secondary relationship to a more stable cinema” (Sitney, xii). The term “experimental cinema” has also been used interchangeably with “avant-garde,” “underground” and the others frequently to conclude the various forms of minor cinemas that are opposed to the practices of mainstream commercial and documentary filmmaking.

Even though historically most of these terms seem to have dominated the terminology privilege in certain time and space, such as “avant-garde” in the postwar America, “underground” in the 60’s, and “amateur” in between the two periods. The term “experimental” prevails today as it becomes the most popular film festival checkbox option, and thus represents avant-garde, underground and other minor cinemas in general, but some film festivals, such as the student Oscars, still stubbornly choose to use the term “alternative” as its standard.

Nevertheless, there is no consistency of the terms used in English. Film scholars still contradict with each other, and it seems that they enjoy the game of definition and re-defining, and challenging others while being challenged. As long as one makes an “innovative” point different from his or her colleagues, chance is bigger to have a paper published.

But the consequence is, when people are applying the term to describe Chinese cinema, the situation becomes really misleading and discombobulating. An interesting case is that many Chinese documentaries labeled or marketed as “underground” or “independent” are entering international film festivals under the category of “experimental cinema.” Another example is that many “personal” or “avant-garde” Chinese films are made by directors who may actually work, at least occasionally, within the state-owned studio system, such as Zheng, Dasheng’s DV China, which is supported by the state-run CCTV 6.

I choose the term “experimental cinema” and its Chinese counterpart 实验电影to differentiate Chinese “experimental cinema” from the internationally celebrated “underground” and “independent” Chinese cinemas, such as the renowned 6th generation films, which are “avant-garde” mostly in its political sense. The Chinese “underground” and “independent,” on the other hand, are very different from what are generally known as the “underground” or “independent” cinemas in the West.

One obvious distinction is that the Chinese “underground” and “independent” cinemas are always narratives: either in the form of fiction or documentary. According to Paul Pickwick and Yingjin Zhang, “underground” is a term preferred by overseas media and embodies expectations of the subversive function of an alternative culture in contemporary China (viii). “Independent,” on the other hand, means a cinematic project’s independence from the state system of production, distribution, and exhibition, rather than to its sources of financial support, for filmmakers increasingly depend on the private (民营) sector and foreign investment, thereby revealing their status of “in dependence” as joint or coproduces, or even contracted media workers. Simply put, Chinese “underground” or “independent” cinema has already deviated greatly from what is generally perceived as “underground” or “independent” in America. As the internationally celebrated sixth generation Chinese directors such as Jia, Zhangke and Zhang, Yuan, have been gradually coming above-ground, the term “underground” seems to be even more problematic nowadays.

Amateur cinema in China, on the other hand, is not made by actual amateurs who are untrained individuals for whom filmmaking is an activity outside of their main profession (Jaffee, 81). Publishing an article “The Age of Amateur Cinema Will Return” in the newspaper Southern Weekend (南方周末), Jia, Zhangke extols a certain mode of amateurism characterized by low budgets and technical minimalism, on-site shooting, and a focus on daily life in contemporary society among directors who are, by all conceivable standards, professionals (Jaffee, 79).

I choose “experimental cinema” and its Chinese counterpart 实验电影 also due to the fact that the meanings of the two are the closest among the other pairs. However, there are certain differences. 实验 means not only experimental, but also experiment and experimentation. Originally a term referring to the basic method of scientific research to test a theory or presumption, it emphasizes a strong sense of innovation, exploration and creativity, and the bravery of undertaking risk and subversion. Thus, the term is in no sense secondary to the so-called “mainstream.” When it’s teamed with the term 电影 (electric shadow, film, movie, or cinema), it suggests an artistic or aesthetic exploration and avant-gardism that pushes the border of the film medium rather than a political otherness. In other words,  实验电影 (experimental cinema) is more of an art for art’s sake, whereas the 地下 (underground) and 独立 (independent) are more of an art for politics’ sake.

Unlike its Western counterpart, there is often a dichotomy or even detachment of pure art and political art in China. The former usually recourses to an elitism that requires a highly cultivated or educated taste, while the latter always borrows the more popular art forms (such as narrative filmmaking) to influence the mass, or the people in the Maoist sense. Such dichotomy or detachment can be traced back to the main ideology of the two distinct classical Chinese philosophies – Confucianism, and Taoism, representing the political view of “in” and “out,” respectively.

The Chinese experimental cinema started with artistic and aesthetic experimentation that covers a wide range of practice: the absence of linear narrative, the use of various abstracting techniques, the use of asynchronous (non-diegetic) sound, or even the absence of any sound track. The short history of Chinese experimental cinema witnessed various forms and sub-genres that are similar to the poetic cinema, visual symphony, motion painting, in Europe and America. There are also works that resemble the trance film, lyrical film, and structural film described in Sitney Visionary Film. However, although I am attempting to categorize Chinese experimental cinema based on its formalistic originality and subversion, there are certain and growing number of Chinese experimental films that also display political dissidence, and social, humanistic awareness along with their artistic and formalistic otherness.

Absence of Experimental Tradition in early Chinese cinema

Among the very few valuable resources I found online, contemporary Chinese visual artist and scholar Cao, Kai wrote on his blog, a brief history of Chinese experimental cinema.

Cao names any time before 1989 the “prehistory era” of Chinese experimental cinema. Before 1949, the progress of Chinese cinema was a process of localization and nationalization of the imported foreign arts. “The early Shanghai national cinema was mainly an entertainment cinema without an industry. Entertainment and popularization was its fundamental functions” (Cao “童贞”). This is in accordance with another film scholar Hsiung Deh-Ta’s statement that “before the Communist take-over, the film industry in China was practically non-existent,” and that “the early Chinese cinema reminded one of the oldest Hollywood traditions but without the professional flair” (Hsiung). After 1949, Chinese cinema becomes a pedagogical tool of the communist party and the government, even though it was publicized as an art form for the people, a Maoist concept that consists of the workers, peasants and soldiers.

Although Cao acknowledged that there were some experimentations in many mainstream movie sequences during this era, including a surrealist tendency found in the 1979 film Troubled Laughter (dir. Yan, Yanjin), some personal and individual experimentation in Fei, Mu’s pre-1949 narrative films, and few experimental shots in Death Visits the Living (1988, dir. Huang, Jian-zhong), the absence of a self-contained, autonomous experimental cinema was inarguable. This absence of an early experimental cinema has its historical reasons and can be traced back to the time when cinema was first imported to mainland China from the West.

There was never an experimental tradition or movement, such as the French Avant-Garde or the German Expressionism, in China since cinema was introduced for several decades. When Lumiere brothers created the first motion picture camera, they explored the apparatus in a realist path, recording and documenting the streets, trains and workers. When Gorge Meliere approached the camera, he experimented with multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand-painted color, transforming reality into a dream world. However, according to Chinese film history scholar Lu, Hongshi “when the first film was made in China, it was neither used as a discovery of reality nor an exploration of the form and language of the medium. It was simply used as a secondary tool to document Peking Opera, a conventional Chinese art form.” The first motion picture filmed by the Chinese is Ding Junshan (1905), a recording of the Peking Opera singer Tan, Xinpei. This film and others alike were welcomed and shown in tea houses to entertain customers. However, they were not able to establish a system for film production and exhibition. Thus, Chinese cinema was tilted at the starting line, and lost the chance to establish a normality of exploration, or namely, an experimental tradition at its birth.

About six or seven years later, Chinese cinema began to distinguish itself as an independent art form instead of simply a carrier of traditional art forms. However, due to the lack of technology and economic support, the early development of Chinese cinema was rather slow and lagging. Besides, such early struggle was almost an exploration of a narrative structure since the classic Western three act dramatic structure was also not a custom yet adopted in Chinese theatre.

Interestingly enough, when some Chinese scholars talk about early experimental cinema or avant-garde, they regard it as a precursor for the development of the mainstream cinema (narrative cinema), instead of an opposition against it. Thus, experimental cinema to some extent serves as technical and artistic experiments with utilitarian functions that pave the way for narrative filmmaking.

According to Lu, the compensation of the absence of experimental cinema in China was experimentations in comedy and martial art cinema since the 1920’s: “in terms of representation and expression, the early genre films adopted new and creative camera trick to attract its audience” (30). “The expressionist tendency in martial art cinema emphasized composition, its visual impact and the setting and design of light and shadows” (35). “Adopting a commercial filmmaking mode, these early genre films substituted avant-garde cinema as the driving force for the development of a national cinema” (35).

Another film scholar contends that due to the history of the pedagogical functions of Chinese culture, cinema was caught in the conflicts between education and entertainment (Chen, 33). There was also a collective unconsciousness among artists to enlighten the audiences and reform the society with artistic tools. In addition, the early history of Chinese cinema was parallel with the national history of a semi-colonialist and revolutionary China that was constantly under the threat of foreign invasions and imperialism. Within such historical background, it is understandable of a constant ignorance and demise against the idea of art for art’s sake in contemporary China, which somehow explains the fact that purist, formalist experimentations hardly ever appealed Chinese artists’ interests until very recently.

Emergence of Chinese Experimental Cinema

The period between 1989 and 1992 has always been acknowledged by film scholars in both China and the West as the turning point of Chinese cinema: The Tiananmen square incident in 1989 led to artist’s disillusionment toward party-controlled artistic creation, and Deng Xiaoping’s southern tour in 1992 reflected loosening policy of state control and welcoming of market imperatives. An alternative commercial cinema such as Feng, Xiaogang’s New Year celebration films started to emerge outside of the state-owned studio system that are known for its “4p” main melody cinema – political, propagandistic, and party-promoted. In the meantime, an art-house cinema headed by the fifth generation directors such as Zhang, Yimou and Chen, Kaige was already very active on the international film festival arena. Overshadowed by the above-mentioned two “alternatives,” there has always been a constant ignorance of a minor experimental cinema that also appeared during and even before this period.

This early appearance of experimental cinema, like Chinese cinema in general, had a Western connection at its threshold. According to Xiaoping Lin, author of Children of Marx and Coca-cola,

In the fall of 1982, Andy Warhol and a film crew visited Beijing from Hong Kong on a mission to make a documentary titled “Andy Warhol in China.” They were accepted by Chinese Artists’ Association. Unfortunately, the trip was unknown to avant-garde artists in China because the Chinese host, represented a socialist “official culture” that repressed the avant-garde. Warhol, in turn, was unaware of the existence of the Chinese avant-garde artists (Lin, 6).

However, even though Andy Warhol was not aware of the existence of Chinese avant-garde artists at that time, his visit and his “neo-avant-garde” had an influence on Chinese avant-garde art and experimental cinema later. Zhang Huan, a member of Beijing’s art underground in the 1990s, established himself as performance artist as early as 1993 in the legendary “Beijing East Village,” named after New York’s East Village. He later launched his “studio-factory” in Shanghai in 2006, resembling Warhol’s “factory” in New York. Zhang employs about a hundred craftsmen and is indeed a Warhonian “business art” (6).

Having produced films that had no plot but rather simply recorded daily mundane human activities and everyday objects often seen his paintings, Warhol’s experimental cinema is characteristic of strong documentary and improvisational elements. Such idea and approach towards the cinematic apparatus as “an extension of contemporary art” is also widely seen and adopted in contemporary Chinese experimental cinema. As a matter of fact, a large portion of Chinese experimental cinema came out of video artists, who used to work in other art forms, instead of filmmakers.

In 1989, a German professor was invited to the Central Academy of Fine Arts to give lectures. He brought 8-hour video art information, which included Gary Hill, Bill Violla and Matthew Barney. Works of those artists enlightened two-generation Chinese artists like Zhang, Peili and Qiu, Zhijie to access to the complete video art information and realize the possibility of this medium (Li 2003). Influenced by Gary Hill and his genre, Zhang, Peili, often known as the father of Chinese video art, completed his first video art work 30 x 30 in 1988.

Zhang’s early works displayed an interest on the documented performance of a simple, mundane activity. In 30 x 30, he broke a mirror and glued the fragments together. Then he shattered the glass once again, and painstakingly repaired it. In his 1991 production Hygiene, a chicken is placed in a washbasin and lathered with soap for two hours. The bird is remarkably obedient, rarely flapping its wings or otherwise evading the hands that turn the poor creature into a water-logged feather duster. The form of hygiene visited on the chicken makes about as much sense as washing a child’s mouth with soap for saying something that the kid did not understand (“Peili, Zhang” paragraph 2)

A breakthrough of Zhang’s works is that it tries to distinguish itself with the narrative traditions in both fictive and non-fictive forms that have dominated Chinese cinema for so long, and that he further denied the existence of any traditional measures (Li 2003).

Zhang greatly influenced other artists such as Zhu, Jia; Han, Xuan and Yang, Zhenzhong, whose works, although vary in style and techniques, share “the magnification of life subtlety resulted in unconventional experiences” (Li 2003). Such magnification of life can still be seen in many recent works such as Lu, Chunsheng’s 2000 production Coughing Curves (会咳嗽的曲线). The video starts with a conciseness and simplicity similar to its title: a steady wide angle bird’s eye view shot of a courtyard. The camera documents the path of people walking though the yard, starting with only one person, then a few, and soon dozens of people that form a curve. The 8 minute video eventually ends with a zoom-in shot of a woman swaying between her two feet back and forth on the concrete floor.

Early Chinese experimental cinema had many connections with its Western counterparts and inherited a lot of its aesthetics and practices. However, the origin of Chinese experimental cinema differs significantly since it was derived mostly from concerns on the medium itself while experimental cinema in the West originated from their rebellions to the system or the mainstream.

A contemporary video artist and experimental filmmaker Cao, Kai provides a similar version of the history of Chinese experimental cinema.

Cao calls the years from1989 to now the virginity era (童贞时期) of Chinese experimental cinema, and he divides the era into three phases: the obscuration period (蒙昧时期) from 1989 to1996, the burgeoning period (发轫时期) from 1997 ~ 2001, and the pre-puberty period from 2002 to now (the article was published on his blog in 2009, and presumably 2011 is still in the same phase).

According to Cao, the documentary I graduated (我毕业了) marked the inception of the first phase and the 1996 Hangzhou exhibition Image and Phenomenon, denoted its end. The exhibition, hosted by artists Qiu, Zhijie and Mu, Meichun, was claimed to be the first public event in China that included a large number of experimental video works. In the following year, the two artists organized another exhibition Demonstrating of Video Art China ’97 at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing (Berghuis, 134).

This period witnessed the entrance of video technology into China, and few contemporary artists started to set foot in this new medium, seeking for personal and artistic expression. The same period also experienced the new Chinese documentary movement, the merit of which was the breakthrough of former documentary forms, and filmmakers’’ attempts to explore the cinematic language. However, both were early temptations and immature experimentations, and hardly any elaborate experimental work was made during this period.

The second phase, as Cao defined, started with Yang, Fudong’ film An Estranged Paradise, and ended with the First Independent Film Festival held at the Beijing Film Academy in 2001 (Cao “童贞”). It was the same period that experienced the DV movement in China.

Although a feature narrative film of a love story, An Estranged Paradise is often acknowledged as an experimental narrative because of its unconventional cinematography, painting-like composition, asynchronized sound, and poetic visual beauty.  Her later short film Back Room – Hey, Dawn, as Cao argues, is very representative of Chinese experimental cinema of the period. The film follows several youths waking up and goofing around in the city in the dawn, wearing military clothing and holding swords (Yang). Unlike the former one, this film totally abandons narrative plot, and its disjointed structure is very reminiscent of the early European surrealist film and American trance film and psycho drama categorized by Sitney in his book Visionary Films, such as Un Chien Andalou, The Cage, and Meshes of the Afternoon.

The film, shot on 35 mm, won the best experimental film award of First Independent Film Festival, the first film festival in China that listed experimental cinema separately as an independent category in parallel with fiction and documentary. Hosted by Beijing Film Academy, Southern Weekend (南方周末, a somewhat dissident Chinese magazine based in Guangzhou), Peking University online, and some other institutions, the event invited not only students, but audiences from all walks of life to attend. It claimed itself to be the first independent and grass-root film festival in China and a comment board was even hung on the front door so that audiences can express their opinions about the films. However, such independence and grass-rootness is easily questioned since the institution hosting the event is the most prestigious, state-run film school.

The third phase started with Zhou, Hongxiang’s 30 minutes silent experimental film The Red Flag Flies and continues until now. An award winning long form experimental short, The Red Flag Flies was shown at several international film festivals including Venice and Berlin. The film elector Serafino Murri from Venice Film Festival even made his comment that there has been a birth of “Jean-Luc Godard” in China (Cui).

A pastiche embedded with political satire arguing that China resists change, and will not progress, reform or be free, the film was programmed under the section of “New Territory” at the Venice international film festival. But due to a “political sensitivity,” the film was not accessible to Chinese audiences. According to a synopsis of the film on Zhang’s personal website, The Red Flag Flies rejects any sort of established film classification, including “plot” film and documentary. It also denies classification by not using unified images, a sense of completeness (beginning, middle, and end) and its peculiar origins of sound (Cui).

However, after watching the film and evaluating its production quality, I insist that The Red Flag Flies was over-celebrated in the West, since it fitted into the niche of peddling a self-orientalizing or even self-depreciating image of China that is generally known as the taste of European art festivals for Chinese films, a path that many 5th and 6th generation directors have been through.

Nevertheless, there is some avant-gardism in the film other than the overt political dissidence. For example, Zhou is bold enough to juxtapose male nudity with the red national flag, which is surprisingly rare in most Chinese experimental films. He directs non-professional actors, welcomes cheap technology, and creates parody with superimpositions and amateurish visual effects. He also defies the traditional narrative structure, and reconstructs dialogue between images, symbols and subtitles.

This period has also witnessed the endorsement of experimental cinema as a category in Chinese film festivals, the founding of major experimental cinema programs in higher educational institutions, and therefore the emergence of many young experimental filmmakers.

After the experimental cinema was added as an official category in the First Independent Film Festival, the following Beijing Independent Film Festival followed and maintained this tradition. Later, experimental cinema was included as a separate competition unit into student film festivals, such as the Visionary Youth Film Festival, hosted by the Communication University of China (the former Beijing Broadcasting Institute). In 2009, an experimental (only) film exhibition called The First Chinese Youth Artists’ Experimental Film and Video was hosted at the Peking University, the nation’s most prestigious university. With an academic committee of 8 members, including 4 university professors from mainland China and Taiwan, 2 experts from governmental art institutions, a British film scholar and a 6th generation Chinese filmmaker Wu Wenguang, the event attracted much attention from both media and academia.

In addition, there were and are some fan clubs hosting events and exhibitions, showcasing and promoting Chinese and Western experimental cinema. In the summer of 2008, a 48 hour film competition was held at the Beijing 798 art district, including an experimental cinema unit. On may 4th (Youth’s day in China) 2008 and 2009, an International Young Art Festival screened multiple experimental films from Spain, Japan, Taiwan and China in the Songzhuang art area in Beijing.

Similar to experimental cinema all around the world, experimental cinema in China is marginalized and only accessible to very limited audiences. Ironically enough, different from most European and American early avant-garde movements (or experimental cinema)  that emerged as self-motivated, autonomous counter-cinema against the mainstream filmmaking world; the major emergence of Chinese experimental cinema was a combination of unofficial artistic awakening and institutionalized movement propelled by academia, which is presumably supported by the state. A supplement to fiction narrative and documentary filmmaking, the emergence of experimental cinema completes the taxonomy system of Chinese cinema and makes up the decades’ absence of an alternative cinema.

Refreshing Chinese Experimental Cinema: Production and Exhibition

There are two major origins of experimental filmmakers in China. The first and biggest group of contributors so far is video artists. Very few works of these video artists include storytelling; their works concentrate more on the exploration of the visual language and its boundary, and often reflect the idea of rendering a dynamic image from abstract art concept. The most representative figures include the Hangzhou based Gao, Shiqiang, and Shanghai based Lu, Chunsheng.

Gao, Shiqiang's work

Figure 1: Gao, Shiqiang’s work

Gao’s work carries a sense of broadness and complexity towards the reflection and bodily experience of daily life, and in the meantime conceives Chinese history and culture. Gao created Faint With Oxygen as the result of an invitation to produce a work on the Tibetan plateau. The video begins with a series of close-up portraits of shepherds in high grasslands, focusing eventually on a young man, Gairi Luosong Gelai, who was forced to teach himself Chinese by listening to the radio. While the work takes a panoramic look at a particular landscape and its inhabitants, it also examines the way language can spark the cultural imagination (“Gao Shiqiang”).

Gao also completed a piece called Red (2008) that contains political symbolism about the Cultural Revolution. “The Red Revolution was, undoubtedly, a magnificent jolt and beautiful ideal. But this ideal brought constant tragedy to mankind,” writes Gao in his statement about this piece. “For those of my generation, history has transformed into a trance and the real world into a joke” (Banks).

Acknowledged as a photographer video and multimedia artist, Lu is preoccupied with the Industrial Era and Communist History, creating art in a mystic rather than nostalgic way. Using fixed camera positions, endless drawn-out shots and seemingly amateurish shooting techniques, he documents human behavior in inexplicable and often bizarre situations (“Lu Chunsheng”).  One example is the above-mentioned The Coughing Curve; another is Lu’s work Hey, Lana (2000), which also displays such style: a group of people along with a statue stand in a row, leaning toward a wall with their heads attached to it. They either walk through or stand still in the city as if they are on a platform without any sense of direction.

Hey, Lana

Figure 2 Hey, Lana

This group of Chinese experimental filmmakers usually have backgrounds in fine arts, and have extended their interest to the new medium – video. Most of their works are devoid of a conventional narrative structure seen in most Chinese cinema, whether fiction or documentary, live action or animation. Many of them identify themselves as video artists instead of filmmakers at first since filmmaking in the history of Chinese cinema has always been obsessed with or exclusive to the narrative form, a tradition that is often conceived by the Chinese as close to literature, while non-linear, abstract and formal aesthetics are linked with art. However, video artists are gradually assimilated into the family of experimental cinema as their works are entering film festivals both domestically and internationally.

Another major and also more recent candidate pool for Chinese experimental filmmaking is the academy. In the early 2000s, with the trend of higher education expansion in China, major educational institutions, university and art institute alike, have set up film art, animation art, media art, and other visual art programs. The students and alumni of these programs become the fresh blood of contemporary experimental cinema.

The Department of New Media Art founded at the China Academy of Arts in 2003, the New Media Art program created at the Beijing Film Academy in 2004, and the Department of Experimental Cinema at the Central Academy of Fine Arts started in 2005 are the earliest and most influential programs among others. With both technical and artistic resources, these institutions announce the completion of a high-end training base for experimental filmmakers, whose works can be widely seen in recent independent and experimental film festivals in Beijing and Shanghai.

However, the three schools have very distinct approaches to experimental filmmaking. As the country’s first and most renowned film educational institution, Beijing Film Academy (BFA) is the cradle of most 5th and 6th generation Chinese filmmakers and has a long tradition of narrative filmmaking. Its departments and programs are designed very similar to the west coast industry-oriented professional film schools in the US, such as the American Film Institute, University of Southern California, UCLA and Chapman University. The experimental film/video program in BFA is named as “New Media Art” under the department of Art and Design (美术系) and is a very minor program within a big narrative filmmaking environment. Interestingly, the program is also parallel with a special effect program, a character design program and a set design program in the same department, all of which are very specialized and career-oriented for narrative filmmaking.

The experimental film/animation program in the Central Academy of Fine Arts, jointly held with California Institute of Arts is less embarrassingly placed within the School of Urban Design. As one of the nation’s top educational institutions for fine art (but not film), the Central Academy of Fine Arts has a great reputation for nurturing artists, mainly painters, sculptors among others.

Qiuyan Wu, a graduate from the experimental film/animation joint program at the Central Academy of Fine Arts who currently teaches at the same university, provides a synopsis of his project Understand (Wu Jing) on his blog: dreamland, restless sleeping ideal, fragments of memories, belief and impulse filling the doubtful dust, and overlapped reality and illusion (Wu). The video starts with the shadow of a Buddha’s bronze sculpture filmed from behind, gradually revealing the back and the head of the Buddha by manipulating the lighting. Then a humming and fluctuating sound enters, and aligns with the shaking head of the Buddha. The video consists of several steady/still shots of the Buddha from different angles and perspectives, and ends with a fade-out of the Buddha that mirrors the beginning.

Tan, Tan, also a former graduate and current faculty member at Central Academy of Fine Arts has made several experimental films that are shown internationally. Her recent work Positive (2010) is a conceptual art that links the yin-yang philosophy to the positive-negative AIDS.

The Department of New Media Art founded at the China Academy of Arts could probably be traced back to the early 1990’s when Zhang, Peili became a faculty member at the school. The program used to be a research center of the new media art until its first official foundation as an independent department in 2003. Recently in 2010, it combined with two other departments that constituted the School of Intermedia (跨媒体学院).

While the former two intuitions have contributed to the experimental cinema circle in Beijing, also known as the “North,” the China Academy of Arts have nurtured most of the Chinese experimental filmmakers that are based in Hangzhou, Nanjing or Shanghai, the Changjiang triangle area. Some artists from Hangzhou migrated to Shenzhen and Hong Kong, which are the geographical South, often referred as the Zhujiang triangle area.

An alumnus from the prestigious China Academy of Arts, Cao, Kai notes that there are also two minor origins of Chinese experimental filmmakers. One group is grass-root artists who were working in other art forms, such as Wu, Quan, a vocal artist in Beijing, Shi, Gang, an architect in Guangzhou, Li, Ning, an avant-garde dancer in Jinan and Li, Wen, a designer in Wuhan (Cao “初潮”).

Another source of minor experimental cinema is short experimental exercises or improvisations made by feature film directors, such as Jia, Zhangke and Gan, Xiao’er. Jia’s La Condition Canine (2001) and In Public (2001) were shown in the Museum of Modern Arts in March, 2010 (Jia).

Another example is filmmaker and professor Gan, Xiao’er’s film Ruo Ji Ruo Li(若即若离). According to one of Gan’s student’s film review, it’s a 90 minutes slow motion long take.

“In the film, the space is limited to a small apartment, the characters include a man and a woman, but there is no dialogue, no plot, only movements, sound of movements, objects, and sound objects. Eventually Gan, Xiaoer told us that he did not know what the relationship between male and female was. He just wanted a catharsis of materialized, past shocking feelings, and inspirations” (Hairmelon).

Conclusion

To conclude, the history of Chinese experimental cinema is very different from its Western counterparts. The emergence of such an experimental cinema in China is attributive to three different forces: foreign influence, self-awareness and arousal of Chinese artists, and state support. With a strong connection and overlapping with video art, Chinese experimental cinema distinguishes itself from the internationally renowned “underground” and “independent” 6th generation Chinese cinema. With several educational programs infusing artist creativity and film festivals’ ongoing coverage, Chinese experimental cinema has found itself a very comfortable niche in the academy. Considering that the world economic center is gradually shifting from North America to East Asia and that Chinese contemporary art has received growing attention and funding from the West, Chinese experimental cinema will probably welcome a blooming era in the foreseeable future.

Bibliography 

Banks, Blake Stone. “Blake Stone-Banks on Huang Rui and Gao Shiqiang.” Artnet – The Art World Online. Artnet Worldwide Corporation. Web. 13 May 2011. <http://www.artnet.com/magazineus/reviews/banks/huang-rui-gao-shiqiang7-6-09.asp&gt;.

Berghuis, Thomas J. Performance Art in China. Hong Kong: Timezone 8, 2006. Print.

Cao, Kai.”童贞时代的中国实验电影(纲要).” Blog.sina. Sina.com.cn, 05 Mar. 2010. Web. 02 May 2011. <http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4938b75f0100p09l.html&gt;.

Cao, Kai. “初潮在南方及南方以南.” Blog.sina. Sina.com.cn, 16 Jan. 2011. Web. 02 May 2011. <http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4938b75f0100p09p.html&gt;.

Cui, Zi’en. ““The Red Flag Flies” Alters “film” beyond Recognition.” Zhou Hongxiang – 周弘湘. Zhouhongxiang.com, 2004. Web. 6 May 2011. <http://www.zhouhongxiang.com/?page_id=884&gt;.

Deh-Ta, Hsiung. “The Chinese Cinema To-day.” The China Quarterly 4 (1960): 82. Print.

“Gao Shiqiang.” ArtSlant – Artists, Exhibits, Galleries and SalesRoom. ArtSlant, 2008. Web. 13 May 2011. <http://www.artslant.com/ny/events/show/31828-gao-shiqiang&gt;.

Hairmelon. “从《若即若离》谈起.” Baidu Kongjian. Baidu, 2 May 2007. Web. 1 May 2011. <http://hi.baidu.com/%D4%B2%D4%B2%B5%C4%D0%C4/blog/item/2c4a6a3492377d3a5ab5f56b.html&gt;.

“Jia Zhangke: A Retrospective.” MoMA | The Museum of Modern Art. The Museum of Modern Art. Web. 8 May 2011. <http://www.moma.org/visit/calendar/films/1046&gt;.

Lin, Xiaoping. Children of Marx and Coca-Cola: Chinese Avant-garde Art and Independent Cinema. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, 2010. Print.

Li, Pi. “Chinese Contemporary Video Art.” ShanghART Gallery Shanghai, 香格纳画廊 上海. ShanghART Gallery, 2003. Web. 01 May 2011. <http://www.shanghartgallery.com/galleryarchive/texts/id/106&gt;.

“Lu Chunsheng 陆春生.” ArtSpeak China Media Wiki. ArtSpeak China, 22 Oct. 2010. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://www.artspeakchina.org/mediawiki/index.php/Lu_Chunsheng_%E9%99%86%E6%98%A5%E7%94%9F&gt;.

“Peili, Zhang at VideoArtWorld.com.” Videoartworld | the Imagery Planet. VideoArtWorld Organization. Web. 10 May 2011. <http://www.videoartworld.com/beta/artist_1790.html&gt;.

Pickowicz, Paul, and Yingjin Zhang. From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. Print.

Wu, Qiuyin. “吴秋龑的艺术空间 – 博客(聚艺厅).” 艺术国际 Artintern.net. Artintern.net Corporation. Web. 13 May 2011. <http://blog.artintern.net/blogs/index/wqy&gt;.

Yang, Fudong. “杨福东《后房——嘿,天亮了!》.” ART218艺术网站 – 中国美术学院 展示文化研究中心. 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 3 May 2011. <http://www.art218.com/bbs/redirect.php?fid=221&gt;.

Filmography

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/r_lwGnU0Eec

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/pw-ZC4ITYEw

http://www.berlinale-talentcampus.de/campus/project/profile/64168

http://bbs.dacorg.cn/viewthread.php?tid=202

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/9ZkDmtRIkuE

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/2f1GC7JSVIo

http://www.art218.com/bbs/redirect.php?fid=221&goto=nextoldset&tid=48943

电影短片展映幕后

昨晚电影系短片展映,很多朋友前来捧场,非常感谢!

但意外的是,我的节目竟然accidently没有出现在节目单上。

尽管主持人丹尼尔同学在开场前给我赔礼道歉,但还是难消心中怒火!

在 全班十二个同学里,我几乎是最先把synopsis/director bio发送到丹同学的邮箱里的,而大多数人,到了周日要展映的当天才把synopsis/director bio写好,发送到丹的邮箱,更有甚者,连bio都没有发,让丹直接替其编写。而且在周日下午五点半,节目单被打印的前20分钟,我还在放映厅和丹同学本 人 一起调试设备,测试projector。设备检查完毕以后,丹同学前往放映厅隔壁的电脑机房整理和打印节目单。

丹同学是传播学系的 PhD,来爱荷华读书之前在CNN当过节目主持人,于是在大家的一致推举下,由丹同学担任我们这次展映的主持人,并负责组织整个展映工作。根据以往的合作 经验,对于丹同学的语言和组织能力我一直非常佩服,只是对于他那美国人一贯的“过度自信”,我还是有所担心。一个星期以前,丹同学把最后大家的交片时间点 在了周日下午四点半,而展映时间是晚上的7点。我(这个曾经在某社会主义国家的中央电视台工作的前编辑记者)提出了质疑,但是丹很快说服了我和大家,“哥 们以前是CNN做电视直播的,肯定没有问题。”

于是,到了周日下午五点,编辑机房里还是人头攒动,很多同学,由于良好的 procrastination习惯,仍然没能完成最后的render。而与此同时,丹同学还没有show up。为了不让辛苦准备了许久的短片展映被fuck up,我给丹同学打了个电话。接到电话的丹同学自信而冷静地告诉我,五分钟以后就到,原来他周末去了趟明尼苏达州,刚刚还在赶回爱荷华的路上。

十五分钟以后,丹同学来到了编辑机房,告诉大家一切顺利。而此前,几个同学还在为放映厅里的展映格式和分辨率上限进行激烈的讨论。

六点五十,我回到展映厅,帮忙分发已经打印好的节目单,结果讽刺的是,我的一位剧组成员告诉我,咱们节目竟然不在节目单上!我立刻拿着节目单冲到了前台,此 时丹同学已经换上了一身西服,正在准备展映的开场白。意识到他的疏忽以后,丹同学,这个一向以理性,严肃,和知识渊博著称的五年级PhD给我讲了一个让我 哭笑不得的冷笑话:你看,我把“缩进”和“页边距”做得多好,但我忘了把你的节目加上去。我仔细看了下节目单,发现自己一直拿反了,原来丹同学用的居然是 “右缩进”,顿时又被雷到。

当然,丹也坦诚地道歉了,俗话说,伸手不打笑脸人,何况大家也是很好的朋友。我无奈,只得重新打印了一份我的节目结束交给他,并且给在场所有的剧组演职人员解释节目没有出现在节目单上的原因。

本 来这只是一件小事,而且电影系一向是学校里种族关系和谐融洽的代表。只是,这个accident偏偏只发生在了我这个唯一的一个亚裔non-white学 生身上(其他同学都是白人)。于是,本来学校里under-represented的Asian minority就变成了not-represented的了。而更ironic的是,我的短片本身就是对这种以白人中心主义为基础的 culturalism和alienation的critique。这么一出小drama,反而印证了我电影的主题。

事实上,对于丹和其他 同学的了解,我肯定这绝对是无意和疏忽,而且如果只是电影系内部展映,我也不会有任何问题。但问题的所在,就是我邀请的许多观众,要么是中国同学,要么是 亚裔美国人,而我想要带给这些观众的观影体验,是对亚洲刻板印象的颠覆,是让美国社会being ignored的“Invisible Asian”群体能够得到更多的representation。可没想到这个progressivel的电影系,在关键时刻给了我个反作用力,又一次加深 和强化了“亚洲和亚裔群体在美国社会不受尊重和待见”的刻板印象。

昨天邀请的两个韩裔美国朋友,对于种族问题比较sensible,不过他俩倒是幽默地跟我说,这个是censorship,因为我的synopsis上对America的描述是a melting pot with nothing melted.

不过,好在我展映之前和丹一起进行了多次测试,所以放映过程一切顺利,而相比之下,我的同学尼克就太不幸了,由于他提供的视频文件的格式问题,他的短片放映中断了两次,而且还出现了画面定格和声画不同步的问题。最后被强制跳过了开头和结尾的大部分内容。

尽管有小小的不愉快,但一个学期的心血,最后得到了很多同学的认可,还是很高兴的一件事情。

论电影系的垮掉

世事难料……

计划赶不上变化……

在美国,一切皆有可能……

比如一个电影制作项目在一天之内就垮掉了……

昨天晚上,我和往常一样哼着小曲,迟到3分钟,走进Workshop教室的时候,突然发现平常只有十几人的教室竟然挤了二十多个人。

正教授兼项目主任的L静静地坐在他的小转椅上,面前所有的学生都沉默不语。

教授L刚刚宣布了一个决定,他要离开UI的电影与比较文学系,去布鲁克林的Pratt Institute当系主任,帮他们开设一个影视制作的MFA项目。我问他是不是纽约给的钱更多,他说不是,是因为爱情……他的老婆在布鲁克林……我问他还有别的原因么?他说,这个原因足够了。全班同学都笑了。

而就再此前,我考完COMP的当天下午,J同学的COMP考试过程中,助理教授A昏倒了,等他醒来以后就失去理智,开始乱扔二楼(新闻系的)会议室里的椅子,然后又砸坏了正教授P的电脑。弄得办公室里的两位秘书都Freak Out了,直到后来救护车和警车都来了,才搞定。

助理教授A是哈佛大学的神学硕士,纽约大学艺术学院电影制作项目的艺术硕士,他对东亚的佛学特别感兴趣,前年选他的编剧课,还让我用读了几段佛经给美国学生听。昨天我考COMP时,他还专门跑回办公室拿了一本关于中国电影的新书借给我,特别嘱咐我看完要还给他。本来还打算下个学期修他的制片课,结果今天我路过他办公室的时候,发现里面已经被清空,打扫干净了。

助理教授A是系里唯一做剧情片的,和我同年来到这所以艺术(实验电影)和学术(电影研究)见长的电影项目以后一直不得志。除了我之外,其他的研究生也都不怎么爱搭理他,不选他的课。但我俩,倒是有点惺惺相惜。

根据教授L推测,教授A的疯狂举动跟他的健康状况有关,教授A刚到爱荷华市不久,就被这家全美第三的医院诊断出患有跟阑尾相关的某种癌症。

于此同时,系里的副教授兼女教授S,正在大西洋另一端的瑞典交流(on leave)。相隔七个小时的时差,她比我们晚了一天才通过视频聊天知道系里的政变。

Workshop课上的一个美国同学跟我开玩笑说,Lewis,你是系里最幸运的学生!去年德高望重的老教授F退休前,我一个学期选了他2门制作课,今年教授L要离职,我又选了他两门制作课。

而我倒是觉得自己好像总是被扫把女神眷顾,在传媒大学读本科的时候,把一个系都读“垮”了。2005年我入学时,读的是“国际传播学院”下的”播音与主持专业(英语节目方向)”,等毕业时,就已经成了”外国语学院”的“英语专业(播音主持方向)”

现在又轮到了我所在的爱荷华大学电影与比较文学系的影视制作项目。四个教授,一个退休,一个离职,一个暴走,还有一个在北欧交流。

还记得前几个月,经济系的Z同学过来抱怨说他们系转眼间就走了两个大牛教授了,没想到,这么快同样的故事就发生在了电影系。记得去年经济危机时,学校为了节省开支,想方设法想整垮电影与比较文学系的两个PhD项目,未遂,那时我们电影制作的MFA项目还是系里唯一被评为A级的program,没有受到任何影响。

没想到今年就这么自爆了。事发之前,戏剧系的主任还来找过教授L和教授A讨论联合Theatre和Cinema的事情。现在看来,希望渺茫。

苦了我们这帮下周毕业作品开题的研究生,我的committee本来就只有三个人能出席(还一个在北欧),现在突然少了两个,就只剩一个人了……

这真TMD是一个悲剧的星期:

先是秃顶王子取了大美女,

再是五道扛的官二代登基,

接着全世界最有革命精神的富二代,反美帝国主义的恐怖主义英雄遇袭,

还有在我准备订机票暑假去布鲁克林之前,那个美国女人打电话告诉我她在和别人dating (而且是两个人,其中一个,根据推测,应该是某个曾经开私人飞机带她去长岛看海的纽约富二代,斗不过,也伤不起……)(讽刺的是,那天还正好是五一,父母的结婚纪念日)

现在连UI的电影系都垮掉了。

不过,

生活还要继续……

最后,引用爱荷华校友,诗人北岛的一句话做结尾:

告诉你吧,世界

我-不-相-信

Isms of Western Thoughts

1. anarchism

(n.)a doctrine urging the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty.

2. antidisestablishmentarianism

(n.)opposition to the withdrawal of state support or recognition from an established church, esp. the Anglican Church in 19th-century England.

3. capitalism

(n.)an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wea

4. existentialism

(n.)a philosophical attitude associated esp. with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre, and opposed to rationalism and empiricism, that stresses the individual’s unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choi

5. feminism

(n.)the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.

6. marxism

(n.)the system of economic and political thought developed by Karl Marx, along with Friedrich Engels, esp. the doctrine that the state throughout history has been a device for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class, that class struggle has been th

7. modernism

(n.)a deliberate philosophical and practical estrangement or divergence from the past in the arts and literature occurring esp. in the course of the 20th century and taking form in any of various innovative movements and styles.

8. nihilism

(n.)the principles of a Russian revolutionary group, active in the latter half of the 19th century, holding that existing social and political institutions must be destroyed in order to clear the way for a new state of society and employing extreme measures,

9. postmodernism

(n.)any of a number of trends or movements in the arts and literature developing in the 1970s in reaction to or rejection of the dogma, principles, or practices of established modernism, esp. a movement in architecture and the decorative arts running counter

10. romanticism

(n.)the Romantic style or movement in literature and art, or adherence to its principles (

11. structuralism

(n.)a school of linguistics that developed in the U.S. during the 1930s–1950s, characterized by such an approach and by an emphasis on the overt formal features of language, esp. of phonology, morphology, and syntax.

12. transcendentalism

(n.)any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson.

13. empiricism

(noun)the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience