Isms of Western Thoughts

1. anarchism

(n.)a doctrine urging the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty.

2. antidisestablishmentarianism

(n.)opposition to the withdrawal of state support or recognition from an established church, esp. the Anglican Church in 19th-century England.

3. capitalism

(n.)an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wea

4. existentialism

(n.)a philosophical attitude associated esp. with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre, and opposed to rationalism and empiricism, that stresses the individual’s unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choi

5. feminism

(n.)the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.

6. marxism

(n.)the system of economic and political thought developed by Karl Marx, along with Friedrich Engels, esp. the doctrine that the state throughout history has been a device for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class, that class struggle has been th

7. modernism

(n.)a deliberate philosophical and practical estrangement or divergence from the past in the arts and literature occurring esp. in the course of the 20th century and taking form in any of various innovative movements and styles.

8. nihilism

(n.)the principles of a Russian revolutionary group, active in the latter half of the 19th century, holding that existing social and political institutions must be destroyed in order to clear the way for a new state of society and employing extreme measures,

9. postmodernism

(n.)any of a number of trends or movements in the arts and literature developing in the 1970s in reaction to or rejection of the dogma, principles, or practices of established modernism, esp. a movement in architecture and the decorative arts running counter

10. romanticism

(n.)the Romantic style or movement in literature and art, or adherence to its principles (

11. structuralism

(n.)a school of linguistics that developed in the U.S. during the 1930s–1950s, characterized by such an approach and by an emphasis on the overt formal features of language, esp. of phonology, morphology, and syntax.

12. transcendentalism

(n.)any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson.

13. empiricism

(noun)the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience

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